XI Century : ABU ZACARIA (died 1107 a.d), 'Kitab~al~Felahah' (Book of Agriculture) Seville, gives us the name of a pigeon: HADIL, translated into Spanish as ARRULLADORA(cooer), by Father J.Banqueri.

XI Century : IBN ABDUN, 'Treatise of Ibn Abdun', Seville. Article 141 of laws and regulations: 'The sale of Thief Pigeons will be absolutely prohibited, a custom used exclusively by people without religion, and also the sale of cats...'

1345 A.D. : 'Fragmentos de dos Obras Grandes de Agricultura y Cria de Animales'; Description of a pigeon resembling the Gorguero or even Rafeņo.

1526 : Leo the African, (Alhasan ibn Mohammed Abwazzan Alfasi) known as AL~HACAN, born Granada, Spain in 1483, who wrote 'Description of Africa', in Arabic, translated into Italian in 1526, where he says that; '...enormous flocks of domestic pigeons existed in Fez, Morocco, of various and beautiful colours. The theft of pigeons was a common practice.' Same as in Spain under the Moors, until their expulsion in 1492. Leos' book was written in 1515.

1529 : Fray Vicente de Burgos: 'Libro de las Propriedades de todas las Cosas' Toledo. Book XII, Chapter VII, folio 158 r,v.'...the pigeon will bring in his company pigeons of other lofts...because they are very pious (good hearted)...and there are some domestic pigeons that force the wild ones to become domestic when they follow them and bring them to the net and enter first to force the others to enter as well.'

1613 : Geronimo Cortes:'Libro y Tratado de los Animales Terrestres y Volatiles', Valencia. Posthumous work.1st edition, in Valencian, published in 1595. Page 359; 'And the pigeons by nature are so good and good hearted, that if they see any pigeon that is lost, will bring it to their loft and shelter it.'

1617 : Francisco de Marcuello, 'Historia Natural y Moral de las Aves', Zaragossa. Part 1, folio 78 'If they find a pigeon alone and lost, they will bring it in their company.' folio 79: 'There are some pigeons that if properly trained will bring with them many others, which they will bring in their company to the nets, where they will be the first ones to enter.' folio 87: 'Because there are Pigeons that trained by man will bring with deceit other pigeons to the net.'

1624 : Geronimo de Huerta, 'Historia Natural de Cayo Plinio Segundo', Madrid. Page 783: 'The pigeon loves its loft and even brings others...' Page 784: 'The pigeons will go out and bring others with them.' Page 777: 'They have a certain art of alluring others, and return to their lofts in the company of many others.'

1700~1730 : Father Antonio Llaudis, 'Tratado sobre las Palomas de Valencia', a manuscript describing the pigeons of Valencia, especially the pouter LAUDINO, so named after Llaudis mentioned in writing in 1740. It was supposed to be the champion LADRONA. Unfortunately this manuscript was apparently lost during the Spanish Civil War (1936~1939)

1720 : Torre y Ocon, Don Francisco: 'Economia General de la Casa de Campo', Madrid. Page 152: 'And these pigeons will bring other strangers.'

1726 : Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana; Academia Espaņola, Madrid. Tome V, page 574: 'ZUMBON; it is so called the pigeon that has a small crop very close to the beak. Provincial noun of Andalucia. (Apparently, all the other pouters were noted for their large, hanging crops). This bird seems to have been taken to Flanders by the Spaniards during their domination of the low countries. The word Zumbon means jester, joker, jumper, a clown. In my opinion it was the origin of the UPLOPER(Jumper), which later produced the Amsterdam Balloon Cropper, and the Holle, if not the Norwich..In 'The American Pigeon Journal' November 1986, page 63, there is an interesting article about 'The History and Development of the Holle Cropper', by J.C.DIEHL, The Hague, where he states that '..thief croppers (the Hague) became very popular (in the XVII Century) and, in fact, have remained so.''The UPLOPER was a rather long Cropper with a balloon resembling that of the Norwich...still to be found in The Hague at the Thief Cropper lofts of which this town still has many.'